Could China’s Yuan replace the U.S. dollar as the world’s dominant currency? Here’s how the Asian nation’s trade supremacy is quickly boosting its reserve status

‘,panelEmptyTemplate=’

{emptyPanelMsg}

‘,panelErrorTemplate=’

{errorMsg}

‘,panelParentTemplate=”,notifOnboardPromoTemplate=”,EXPANDED_PANEL=”expanded_panel”,ERROR_PANEL=”error_panel”,NotificationView=function(){function e(n,t){classCallCheck(this,e);var i=this;i._config=n,i._panelNode=null,i._store=t}return createClass(e,[{key:”_generatePanelMarkup”,value:function(e,n){var t=this._config,i=void 0,o=void 0;”undefined”!=typeof window&&(i=window.Notification&&”default”===window.Notification.permission,o=t.promos.bypassEligibleClassCheck||hasClass(document.body,t.promos.eligibleBodyClass));var r=t.promos.enableNotifOnboard&&i&&o?notifOnboardPromoTemplate:””;if(r){var s=t.promos.showYahooLogo?””:”yns-no-logo”;r=r.replace(“{notifOnboardBtnLabel}”,t.promos.notifOnboardBtnLabel).replace(“{notifOnboardMsg}”,t.promos.notifOnboardMsg).replace(“{subscriptionTopic}”,t.promos.subscriptionTopic).replace(“{noLogoClass}”,s).replace(“{promoLogo}”,t.promos.promoLogo)}var a=n.newCount>t.panel.maxCount?n.newCount:””,c=t.panel.notificationCenterPath,l=c?””:constants.panelHideElement,d=t.panel.headerMsg?””:” “+constants.panelHideElement,u=c?constants.panelPaddingBtm:””,p=void 0;n.count?p=n.markup:p=panelEmptyTemplate.replace(“{emptyPanelMsg}”,t.panel.emptyPanelMsg);return e=e.replace(“{notifMarkup}”,p).replace(“{promoMarkup}”,r).replace(“{hideClass}”,l).replace(“{notifCenterLink}”,c).replace(“{paddingClass}”,u).replace(“{headerMsg}”,t.panel.headerMsg).replace(“{hideHeaderClass}”,d).replace(/{notificationCenterNavMsg}/g,t.panel.notificationCenterNavMsg).replace(/{newCount}/g,a)}},{key:”render”,value:function(e,n){var t=this;if(t._panelNode){var i=void 0,o=t._panelNode,r=void 0,s=void 0;switch(e){case EXPANDED_PANEL:i=panelTemplate,s=t._store.getNotifications(),r=t._generatePanelMarkup(i,s),o.innerHTML=r;break;case ERROR_PANEL:r=(i=panelErrorTemplate).replace(“{errorMsg}”,t._config.panel.errorMsg),o.innerHTML=r}n&&n()}else n&&n(new Error(“No panel parent”))}},{key:”createPanelParentNode”,value:function(e){e&&(e.innerHTML=panelParentTemplate,this._panelNode=document.getElementById(constants.panelNodeId))}},{key:”updateBadgeNode”,value:function(e){if(e){var n=this._store.getNotifications().newCount,t=this._config.badge.maxCount;if(n){var i=n>t?t+”+”:n;e.innerHTML=i}else e.innerHTML=””}}},{key:”addStyles”,value:function(e){if(e&&”undefined”!=typeof window){var n=document.getElementById(this._config.panel.styleTagId);n||((n=document.createElement(“style”)).type=”text/css”,n.id=this._config.panel.styleTagId,n.innerText=e,document.head.appendChild(n))}}}]),e}(),EXPANDED_PANEL$1=”expanded_panel”,ERROR_PANEL$1=”error_panel”,PanelController=function(){function e(n,t,i){classCallCheck(this,e);var o=this;o._store=t,o._view=i,o._config=n;var r=o._config.panel;o._panelParentNode=document.querySelector(r.parentSelector),o._badgeNode=o._config.badge.selector&&document.querySelector(o._config.badge.selector),o._indicatorNode=r.indicatorSelector&&document.querySelector(r.indicatorSelector)}return createClass(e,[{key:”createPanelParentNode”,value:function(){this._view.createPanelParentNode(this._panelParentNode),this._notifPanelNode=document.getElementById(constants.panelNodeId)}},{key:”refreshPanelNode”,value:function(e,n){var t=this;addClass(t._notifPanelNode,constants.panelLoading),t._store.fetchNotifications(e,(function(e,i){var o=window.wafer&&window.wafer.base;o&&o.destroy(t._notifPanelNode),e?t._notifPanelNode.innerHTML||(t._view.render(ERROR_PANEL$1),addClass(t._notifPanelNode,constants.panelLoading)):(t._view.render(EXPANDED_PANEL$1),t._view.updateBadgeNode(t._badgeNode),t._showBadge(),t._showIndicator(),t._view.addStyles(i.css)),removeClass(t._notifPanelNode,constants.panelLoading),o&&o.sync(t._notifPanelNode.parentNode),n&&n(e,i)}))}},{key:”resetBadge”,value:function(){var e=this;e._store.resetNewCount(),e._view.updateBadgeNode(e._badgeNode),addClass(e._badgeNode,e._config.badge.hideClass)}},{key:”_showIndicator”,value:function(){this._indicatorNode&&(this._store.getNotifications().newCount?addClass(this._indicatorNode,this._config.panel.indicatorClass):removeClass(this._indicatorNode,this._config.panel.indicatorClass))}},{key:”_showBadge”,value:function(){var e=this;e._store.getNotifications().newCount?removeClass(e._badgeNode,e._config.badge.hideClass):addClass(e._badgeNode,e._config.badge.hideClass)}}]),e}(),config={promos:{eligibleBodyClass:”display-push-promos”,enableNotifOnboard:!0,bypassEligibleClassCheck:!1,notifOnboardBtnLabel:”Notify Me”,notifOnboardMsg:”Get alerts for breaking news and top stories”,promoLogo:”https://s.yimg.com/cv/apiv2/ae/news/circle_bell.png”,showYahooLogo:!0,subscriptionTopic:”gondor_homerun_news”},badge:{hideClass:””,maxCount:5,selector:””},panel:{emptyPanelMsg:”You have no new notifications.”,errorMsg:””,headerMsg:”Notifications”,imageTag:”img:40×40|2|80″,indicatorClass:”yns-indicator”,indicatorSelector:null,maxCount:6,notificationCenterNavMsg:”View all {newCount} notifications”,notificationCenterPath:””,notificationTypes:””,parentSelector:null,styleTagId:”notificationStyles”,theme:”default”},service:{attemptCount:2,attemptDelay:1,url:null,resetUrl:null,isRMP:!1,responseType:”json”,timeout:1500}},Main=function(){function e(n){classCallCheck(this,e);var t=this;t.config=t._parseConfig(n),t._validateRequiredConfigs()&&(t._request=new NotificationRequest(t.config),t._store=new NotificationStore(t.config,t._request),t._view=new NotificationView(t.config,t._store),t._panelController=new PanelController(t.config,t._store,t._view),t._panelController.createPanelParentNode(),t._assignHelperMethods())}return createClass(e,[{key:”_parseConfig”,value:function(e){var n={};for(var t in objectAssign(n,config),n)if(n.hasOwnProperty(t)){var i=n[t],o=e[t];”object”===(void 0===i?”undefined”:_typeof(i))?objectAssign(i,o):n[t]=e[t]}return n}},{key:”_validateRequiredConfigs”,value:function(){var e=this.config;return!(!e.panel.parentSelector||!e.service.url)}},{key:”_assignHelperMethods”,value:function(){var e=this;e.helpers={refreshPanelNode:e._panelController.refreshPanelNode.bind(e._panelController),resetBadge:e._panelController.resetBadge.bind(e._panelController),resetIndicator:function(){removeClass(e._panelController._indicatorNode,e.config.panel.indicatorClass)}}}}]),e}(),notificationClient_module_min=Main,notificationClient={NotificationClient:notificationClient_module_min},CONSUMPTION_STORAGE_KEY=”lnct”,NotifClient=function(){function e(){var e,n;this.personalized=!1,this.ybarElem=document.getElementById(“ybar”),this.partnerClasses=null===(n=null===(e=this.ybarElem)||void 0===e?void 0:e.className)||void 0===n?void 0:n.match(/ybar-variant-([a-z]*)/),this.client=new notificationClient.NotificationClient(this.getConfig())}return e.prototype.refreshPanel=function(){var e,n,t,i=this,o={lastUpdate:this.getTimeStamp()||this.setTimeStamp(),loadInHpViewer:!0,includePersonalized:this.personalized},r=(null===(e=window.YAHOO)||void 0===e?void 0:e.context)||(null===(n=window.Af)||void 0===n?void 0:n.context)||{};return r.region&&r.lang&&(o.lang=r.lang,o.region=r.region),(null===(t=this.partnerClasses)||void 0===t?void 0:t.length)&&(o.partner=this.partnerClasses[1]),new Promise((function(e,n){i.client.helpers.refreshPanelNode({matrixParams:o},(function(t,i){t&&(logError(“Notification refresh error:”,t),n(t)),e(i)}))}))},e.prototype.resetBadge=function(){this.client.helpers.resetBadge(),this.setTimeStamp()},e.prototype.getConfig=function(){var e,n,t,i,o={promos:{eligibleBodyClass:”display-push-promos”,enableNotifOnboard:!0},badge:{selector:”#notif-badge”,hideClass:”ybar-notification-hidden”},panel:{emptyPanelMsg:”You have no new notifications.”,errorMsg:”Please check back later.”,headerMsg:”Notifications”,maxCount:5,parentSelector:”#ybarNotificationBody”,notificationTypes:”breakingNews”},service:{url:”/tdv2_fp/api/resource/NotificationHistory.getHistory”,isRMP:!1}},r=document.getElementById(“notification-container”),s=null===(e=null==r?void 0:r.dataset)||void 0===e?void 0:e.config,a={};if(s){“att”===(null===(n=this.partnerClasses)||void 0===n?void 0:n[1])&&(o.promos.showYahooLogo=!1);try{var c=JSON.parse(s);a=__assign({},c),this.personalized=1===c.personalize}catch(e){logError(“Notifications config parsing error”,e)}r&&delete r.dataset.config}var l=this.mergeConfigs(o,a);return(null===(t=this.partnerClasses)||void 0===t?void 0:t.length)&&(null===(i=l.promos)||void 0===i?void 0:i.subscriptionTopic)&&delete l.promos.subscriptionTopic,l},e.prototype.mergeConfigs=function(e,n){var t=__assign({},e);for(var i in e)t[i]=__assign(__assign({},e[i]),n[i]);return t},e.prototype.getTimeStamp=function(){var e;return null===(e=window.localStorage)||void 0===e?void 0:e.getItem(CONSUMPTION_STORAGE_KEY)},e.prototype.setTimeStamp=function(){var e,n=””+Math.floor((new Date).getTime()/1e3);return null===(e=window.localStorage)||void 0===e||e.setItem(CONSUMPTION_STORAGE_KEY,n),n},e}(),notifClient=new NotifClient,getNotifClient=function(){return notifClient},reInit=function(){notifClient=new NotifClient},ybarRapid,ybarRapidInterval,ybarRapidErrMsg=””,beaconQueue=[],noop=function(){},logRapidError=function(){window.removeEventListener(“beforeunload”,logRapidError),””!==ybarRapidErrMsg&&logError(“Rapid not found on page”,new Error(ybarRapidErrMsg))},findRapidWithSpaceid=function(e){var n=void 0;if(e&&e.length>0)for(var t=0;t0){if(ybarRapid.addModules(o,!1,i),beaconQueue.length>0)for(e=0;e90&&fireImageBeacon(“performance”,e)}catch(e){}}),1e3)}))},measureInit=measure(“ybar-init”);initYbar(),measureInit.stop(),initPerformanceMetricsBeaconListener(),initRapid(),initErrorBeaconListener();var selected=”_yb_jzayl”,Css$7={“right-item”:”_yb_25j2b”,selected:selected,”ybar-mod-topnavigation”:”_yb_1o38m”,”ybar-mod-topnavigation-teaser-imp”:”_yb_1oij6″},DOCUMENT_NODE_TYPE=9;if(“undefined”!=typeof Element&&!Element.prototype.matches){var proto=Element.prototype;proto.matches=proto.matchesSelector||proto.mozMatchesSelector||proto.msMatchesSelector||proto.oMatchesSelector||proto.webkitMatchesSelector}function closest(e,n){for(;e&&e.nodeType!==DOCUMENT_NODE_TYPE;){if(“function”==typeof e.matches&&e.matches(n))return e;e=e.parentNode}}var closest_1=closest;function _delegate(e,n,t,i,o){var r=listener.apply(this,arguments);return e.addEventListener(t,r,o),{destroy:function(){e.removeEventListener(t,r,o)}}}function delegate(e,n,t,i,o){return”function”==typeof e.addEventListener?_delegate.apply(null,arguments):”function”==typeof t?_delegate.bind(null,document).apply(null,arguments):(“string”==typeof e&&(e=document.querySelectorAll(e)),Array.prototype.map.call(e,(function(e){return _delegate(e,n,t,i,o)})))}function listener(e,n,t,i){return function(t){t.delegateTarget=closest_1(t.target,n),t.delegateTarget&&i.call(e,t)}}var delegate_1=delegate,ListNode=function(e){this.data=e,this.next=null,this.prev=null},LinkedList=function(){function e(){this.head=null,this.tail=null}return e.prototype.push=function(e){var n=new ListNode(e);return this.head?this.tail?(n.prev=this.tail,this.tail.next=n,this.tail=n):(this.tail=n,this.tail.prev=this.head,this.head.next=this.tail):(this.head=n,n.next=this.tail),n},e.prototype.size=function(){for(var e=0,n=this.head;n;)e+=1,n=n.next;return e},e.prototype.getHead=function(){return this.head},e.prototype.getTail=function(){return this.tail},e.prototype.get=function(e){if(e>=this.size())return null;for(var n=0,t=this.head;(null==t?void 0:t.next)&&n0&&Array.prototype.forEach.call(e,(function(e){e.onerror=function(){e.onerror=null,e.style.display=”none”}}))},fixLogoOutline=function(e,n){e&&(hideOutlineOnMouseDown(“#ybar-logo”,”#ybar-logo”,n),n.onDestroy((function(){e.classList.remove(“ybar-show-outline”),e.classList.remove(“ybar-hide-outline”)})))},logoClick=function(e,n){n&&e.addElementListener(n,”click”,(function(){e.triggerEvent(“logo-click”)}))},init$4=function(e,n){n.logoImages&&hideLogosOnError(n.logoImages),n.wrapper&&(fixLogoOutline(n.wrapper,e),logoClick(e,n.wrapper))};initModule(“ybar-mod-logo”,(function(e){var n={wrapper:document.getElementById(“ybar-logo”),logoImages:document.querySelectorAll(“.”.concat(Css$6[“logo-image”]))};init$4(e,n)}));var overlay$1=”_yb_12lgy”,tooltip=”_yb_12q59″,tooltip__text=”_yb_1d5ug”,tooltip__voice=”_yb_1xpmk”,tooltip__web=”_yb_dgyn0″,dark=”_yb_183ar”,darker=”_yb_1yc1q”,light=”_yb_ygnhg”,midnight60=”_yb_18lo3″,Css$5={“dropdown-open”:”_yb_1dctr”,”merchant-is-selected”:”_yb_18dyt”,overlay:overlay$1,”selected-merchant-clear-button”:”_yb_mo1c8″,”shops-buttons”:”_yb_2zvzp”,”styled-select”:”_yb_couwt”,tooltip:tooltip,”tooltip–show”:”_yb_cbae6″,tooltip__text:tooltip__text,tooltip__voice:tooltip__voice,tooltip__web:tooltip__web,dark:dark,darker:darker,light:light,midnight60:midnight60},range=function(e,n){var t=Math.max(e,n),i=Math.min(e,n),o=Math.abs(t-i);return __spreadArray([],new Array(o+1),!0).map((function(e,n){return i+n}))},openSearchOverlay=function(e,n,t){var i=e.getConfig().bucketConfig,o=(void 0===i?{}:i).enable_search_ui,r=void 0!==o&&o;if(n.ybar){n.ybar.classList.add(“ybar-searchbox-assist-fullscreen”),document.documentElement.classList.add(“ybar-overlay”),document.body.classList.add(“ybar-overlay-noscroll”);beaconClick(“ybar”,”websrch”,””,{elm:”expand”,subsec:”searchbox”,itc:”1″}),setTimeout((function(){n.searchInput instanceof HTMLInputElement&&(t&&(n.searchInput.value=t),n.searchInput.focus(),r&&n.searchInput.click())}))}},closeSearchOverlay=function(e){var n;null===(n=e.ybar)||void 0===n||n.classList.remove(“ybar-searchbox-assist-fullscreen”),document.documentElement.classList.remove(“ybar-overlay”),document.body.classList.remove(“ybar-overlay-noscroll”),e.searchInput instanceof HTMLInputElement&&(e.searchInput.value=””,e.searchInput.blur())},initMweb=function(e,n){“smartphone”===e.getConfig().device&&(e.addElementListener(n.searchBoxPlaceholder,”click”,(function(){openSearchOverlay(e,n)})),e.addElementListener(n.searchBoxPlaceholder,”keydown”,(function(t){var i=t,o=i.keyCode,r=i.key,s=range(65,90),a=__spreadArray(__spreadArray([],range(58,57),!0),range(96,105),!0),c=__spreadArray(__spreadArray([],s,!0),a,!0).includes(o);(32===o||13===o||c)&&(t.preventDefault(),t.stopPropagation(),openSearchOverlay(e,n,c?r:””))})),n.searchBoxBackButton&&(e.addElementListener(n.searchBoxBackButton,”click”,(function(e){e.stopPropagation(),closeSearchOverlay(n);beaconClick(“ybar”,”back-close-srch”,””,{elm:”btn”,subsec:”searchbox”,itc:”1″})})),e.addElementListener(n.searchInput,”keyup”,(function(e){e.stopPropagation();27===e.keyCode&&(e.stopPropagation(),closeSearchOverlay(n))}))),e.onDestroy((function(){closeSearchOverlay(n)})))},Tooltip=function(){function e(e,n,t){n&&(this.ybar=e,this.elem=n,this.options=t,this.show=this.show.bind(this),this.hide=this.hide.bind(this),this.addEventListeners())}return Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,”tooltip”,{get:function(){var e=this;return this.tooltipMarkup||(this.tooltipMarkup=this.createTooltip(),(this.options.tooltipParentElm||this.elem).appendChild(this.tooltipMarkup),this.ybar.onDestroy((function(){var n,t;null===(t=null===(n=e.tooltipMarkup)||void 0===n?void 0:n.parentNode)||void 0===t||t.removeChild(e.tooltipMarkup)}))),this.tooltipMarkup},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),e.prototype.show=function(){this.tooltip.classList.add(this.options.showClass)},e.prototype.hide=function(){this.tooltip.classList.remove(this.options.showClass)},e.prototype.addEventListeners=function(){this.ybar.addElementListener(this.elem,”mouseenter”,this.show),this.ybar.addElementListener(this.elem,”focus”,this.show),this.ybar.addElementListener(this.elem,”mouseleave”,this.hide),this.ybar.addElementListener(this.elem,”blur”,this.hide)},e.prototype.createTooltip=function(){var e=document.createElement(“div”);e.className=this.options.containerClass||””;var n=document.createElement(“p”);return n.textContent=this.options.label,n.className=this.options.textClass||””,e.appendChild(n),e},e}();createCommonjsModule((function(module){(function(){var __webpack_modules__={“./src/index.js”:
/*!**********************!*
!*** ./src/index.js ***!
**********************/function(__unused_webpack_module,__unused_webpack_exports,__webpack_require__){eval(“var I18n = __webpack_require__(/*! ./lib/I18n */ “./src/lib/I18n.js”);nn(function (win, doc) {n “use strict”;nn var defaultConfig = {n uiLang: ‘en-US’,n speechLang: ‘en-US’,n voiceButton: ‘#voice-btn’,n searchBox: {n form: ‘#sf’,n input: ‘#yschsp’,n params: {n fr: ”,n fr2: ”n }n },n enable_voice_trending: false,n trending: {n market: “en-us”n },n ui: {n speechOverlay: {n disableBlur: falsen }n },n browsers: {n edge: falsen }n };nn function VoiceSearch(config) {n var self = this;n self.config = Object.assign(defaultConfig, config || {});n self.i18n = new VoiceSearch.I18n({n lang: self.config.uiLangn });n self.renderPermissionGuide(self);n self.renderSpeechPanel(self);n self.speechResult = ”;n self.noSpeech = true;n self.isRecognitionStart = false;n self.recognition = null;n self.voiceButton = doc.querySelector(self.config.voiceButton);n self.searchBoxForm = doc.querySelector(self.config.searchBox.form);n self.searchBoxQuery = doc.querySelector(self.config.searchBox.input);n self.speechPanel = doc.querySelector(‘#spch’);n self.speechButtonContainer = doc.querySelector(‘#spchbc’);n self.speechButton = doc.querySelector(‘#spchbc-btn’);n self.speechText = doc.querySelector(‘#spcht’);n self.speechOverlay = doc.getElementById(‘spch-overlay’);n self.retryLink = doc.querySelector(‘#spcht-retry’);n self.trending = doc.getElementById(‘spch-trending’);n self.trendingTerms = doc.getElementById(‘trending-terms’);n self.termSpans = doc.getElementsByClassName(“trending-term”);n self.closeButton = doc.querySelector(‘#spchx’);n self.startAudio = new Audio(‘https://s.yimg.com/pv/static/misc/voice-start-202105050733.wav’);n self.resultAudio = new Audio(‘https://s.yimg.com/pv/static/misc/voice-result-202105050733.wav’);n self.errorAudio = new Audio(‘https://s.yimg.com/pv/static/misc/voice-error-202105050733.wav’);n self.closeAudio = new Audio(‘https://s.yimg.com/pv/static/misc/voice-close-202105050733.wav’);n self.permissionGuide = doc.querySelector(‘#spchp’);n self.permissionGuideClose = doc.querySelector(‘#spchpx’);n self.permissionGuideTimer = null;nn self.onEscKeyDown = function (e) {n if (e.code !== ‘Escape’) {n return;n }nn self.recognition.stop();n self.sendBeacon(‘keybrd’, ‘voicesearch_cancel_esc’); // The clean up should put inside closePanel() instead of here,n // or func won’t be cleaned up if user close panel with btn or overlaynn self.closePanel(self);n };nn if (self.isBrowserSupported()) {n var SpeechRecognition = win.SpeechRecognition || win.webkitSpeechRecognition;n var SpeechGrammarList = win.SpeechGrammarList || win.webkitSpeechGrammarList;n var speechGrammar = ‘#JSGF V1.0;’;n self.recognition = new SpeechRecognition();n var speechRecognitionList = new SpeechGrammarList();nn if (speechRecognitionList.addFromString) {n speechRecognitionList.addFromString(speechGrammar, 1);n }nn self.recognition.grammars = speechRecognitionList;n self.recognition.continuous = false;n self.recognition.lang = self.config.speechLang;n self.recognition.interimResults = false;n self.recognition.maxAlternatives = 1;n /* Listeners */nn if (self.voiceButton) {n self.voiceButton.onclick = function () {n self.recognition.start();nn if (self.permissionGuideTimer) {n win.clearTimeout(self.permissionGuideTimer);n }nn self.permissionGuideTimer = win.setTimeout(function () {n if (!self.isRecognitionStart) {n self.showPermissionGuide(self);n }n }, 300); // Also close when pressing escnn doc.addEventListener(‘keydown’, self.onEscKeyDown);n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch’);n };n }nn if (self.speechButton) {n self.speechButton.onclick = function () {n if (!self.isRecognitionStart) {n self.recognition.start();n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch_panel_mic_restart’);n } else {n self.recognition.stop();n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch_panel_mic_close’);n self.closePanel(self);n }n };n }nn if (self.retryLink) {n self.retryLink.onclick = function () {n if (!self.isRecognitionStart) {n self.recognition.start();n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch_panel_retry’);n }n };n }nn if (self.speechOverlay) {n self.speechOverlay.onclick = function () {n self.recognition.stop();n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch_cancel_outside’);n self.closePanel(self);n };n }nn if (self.closeButton) {n self.closeButton.onclick = functionn /*event*/n () {n self.recognition.stop();n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch_cancel’);n self.closePanel(self);n };n }nn if (self.permissionGuideClose) {n self.permissionGuideClose.onclick = functionn /*event*/n () {n self.recognition.stop();n self.sendBeacon(‘clk’, ‘voicesearch_permission_close’);n self.closeAudio.play();n self.hidePermissionGuide(self);n };n }n /* Recognition Events */nnn self.recognition.onresult = function (event) {n // The SpeechRecognitionEvent results property returns a SpeechRecognitionResultList objectn // The SpeechRecognitionResultList object contains SpeechRecognitionResult objects.n // It has a getter so it can be accessed like an arrayn // The first [0] returns the SpeechRecognitionResult at the last position.n // Each SpeechRecognitionResult object contains SpeechRecognitionAlternative objects that contain individual results.n // These also have getters so they can be accessed like arrays.n // The second [0] returns the SpeechRecognitionAlternative at position 0.n // We then return the transcript property of the SpeechRecognitionAlternative objectn // console.log(‘Confidence: ‘ + event.results[0][0].confidence);n self.speechResult = event.results[0][0].transcript;n /* Punctuation Handling: Check last character and strip it if necessary */nn self.handlePunctuation(self);nn if (self.speechText) {n self.speechText.innerText = self.speechResult;n }nn if (self.searchBoxQuery) {n self.searchBoxQuery.value = self.speechResult;n }nn self.resultAudio.play();n win.setTimeout(function () {n if (self.speechPanel) {n self.speechPanel.classList.remove(“s2tb”);n self.speechPanel.classList.add(“s2tb-h”);n }nn self.hideRetryLink(self);nn if (self.searchBoxForm) {n var inputFr = self.searchBoxForm.querySelector(‘[name=fr]’);n var inputFr2 = self.searchBoxForm.querySelector(‘[name=fr2]’);nn if (inputFr && self.config.searchBox && self.config.searchBox.params && self.config.searchBox.params.fr) {n inputFr.value = config.searchBox.params.fr;n inputFr.disabled = false; // for homepage casen }nn if (inputFr2 && self.config.searchBox && self.config.searchBox.params && self.config.searchBox.params.fr2) {n inputFr2.value = config.searchBox.params.fr2;n inputFr2.disabled = false; // for homepage casen }nn self.searchBoxForm.submit();n }n }, 1000);n };nn self.recognition.onspeechstart = functionn /*event*/n () {// Fired when speech startsn };nn self.recognition.onspeechend = function () {n // Fired when speech endsn self.recognition.stop();n };nn self.recognition.onerror = functionn /*event*/n () {n // console.log(‘Error occurred in recognition: ‘ + event.error);n if (self.speechText) {n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.recognition_error’);n }nn self.hideTrending(self);n self.showRetryLink(self);n self.errorAudio.play();n };nn self.recognition.onaudiostart = functionn /*event*/n () {n // Fired when the user agent has started to capture audio.n if (self.speechButtonContainer) {n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.add(“listening”);n }n };nn self.recognition.onaudioend = functionn /*event*/n () {n // Fired when the user agent has finished capturing audio.n if (self.speechButtonContainer) {n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.remove(“listening”);n }n };nn self.recognition.onsoundstart = functionn /*event*/n () {n // Fired when any sound — recognisable speech or not — has been detected.n self.hideTrending(self);n self.noSpeech = false;nn if (self.speechButtonContainer) {n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.remove(“listening”);n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.add(“speaking”);n }n };nn self.recognition.onsoundend = functionn /*event*/n () {n // Fired when no sound presentn if (self.speechButtonContainer) {n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.remove(“speaking”);n }n };nn self.recognition.onstart = functionn /*event*/n () {n // Fired when the speech recognition service has begun listeningn self.recognitionInit(self);n self.startRecognition(self);n };nn self.recognition.onend = functionn /*event*/n () {n // Fired when the speech recognition service has disconnected.n self.isRecognitionStart = false;nn if (self.noSpeech == false && self.speechResult == ”) {n // No match: Fired when the speech recognition can’t recognise speechn if (self.speechText) {n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.recognition_nomatch’);n }nn self.hideTrending(self);n self.showRetryLink(self);n self.errorAudio.play();n }n }; // trigger onReady event when initializednnn if (document && document.dispatchEvent) {n document.dispatchEvent(new Event(‘VOICE_JS_READY’));n }n }n } // static membersnnn VoiceSearch.I18n = I18n; // instance membersnn VoiceSearch.prototype.renderPermissionGuide = function (self) {n var tmpl = “\n

\n \n

\n

\n \n

\n

\n

“.concat(self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.permission_title’), “

\n

“).concat(self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.permission_text’), “

\n

\n

\n

\n “);n var dom = new DOMParser().parseFromString(tmpl, ‘text/html’);n document.body.appendChild(dom.body.children[0]);n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.renderSpeechPanel = function (self) {n var tmpl = “\n

\n \n \n

\n

\n

\n \n \n \n \n \n \n

\n

\n

\n \n \n “.concat(self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.recognition_retry’), “\n

\n

\n

\n

\n

\n

\n “).concat(self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.trending_title’), “\n \n

\n

\n

\n “);n var dom = new DOMParser().parseFromString(tmpl, ‘text/html’);nn if (self && self.config && self.config.ui && self.config.ui.speechOverlay && self.config.ui.speechOverlay.disableBlur) {n dom.body.children[0].classList.add(‘disable-blur-overlay’);n }nn document.body.appendChild(dom.body.children[0]);n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.isBrowserSupported = function () {n var isSupported = false;n var self = this;n var isChromium = Boolean(window.chrome);n var isIOSChrome = /CriOS/.test(window.navigator.userAgent);n var isEdge = /Edg\//.test(window.navigator.userAgent);n var isLegacyEdge = /Edge\//.test(window.navigator.userAgent);n var isOpera = Boolean(window.opr);n var isBrave = Boolean(window.navigator.brave);n var browsers = [// chromen {n checkEnabled: function checkEnabled() {n return true;n },n checkBrowser: function checkBrowser() {n return isChromium && !isIOSChrome && !isEdge && !isOpera && !isBrave;n },n checkAPI: function checkAPI() {n return win && (‘SpeechRecognition’ in win || ‘webkitSpeechRecognition’ in win) && (‘SpeechGrammarList’ in win || ‘webkitSpeechGrammarList’ in win);n }n }, // edgen {n checkEnabled: function checkEnabled() {n return self && self.config && self.config.browsers && self.config.browsers.edge;n },n checkBrowser: function checkBrowser() {n return isChromium && isEdge && !isLegacyEdge;n },n checkAPI: function checkAPI() {n return win && (‘SpeechRecognition’ in win || ‘webkitSpeechRecognition’ in win) && (‘SpeechGrammarList’ in win || ‘webkitSpeechGrammarList’ in win);n }n }];nn for (var b = 0; b < browsers.length; b++) {n var browser = browsers[b];nn if (browser && browser.checkBrowser && browser.checkBrowser() && browser.checkEnabled && browser.checkEnabled(self) && browser.checkAPI && browser.checkAPI()) {n isSupported = true;n }n }nn return isSupported;n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.recognitionInit = function (self) {n // Initialize flags for checking whether user is speaking or notn self.speechResult = ”;n self.noSpeech = true;n self.isRecognitionStart = true;n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.showPermissionGuide = function (self) {n if (self.permissionGuide) {n self.permissionGuide.classList.remove(“hide”);n }n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.hidePermissionGuide = function (self) {n if (self.permissionGuide) {n self.permissionGuide.classList.add(“hide”);n }n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.getTrending = function (self) {n // Call api for trending termsn if (!self.config.enable_voice_trending || !self.trending) {n return;n }nn var url = “https://api.search.yahoo.com/data/v3/search?appid=4d234a9d&market=” + self.config.trending.market + “&features=trending.voice”;n self.ajaxReq(url, function (resBody) {n if (!resBody || !resBody.response || !resBody.response.search || !resBody.response.search.results || !resBody.response.search.results[“trending.voice”]) {n return;n }nn var terms = resBody.response.search.results[“trending.voice”].data;n self.showTrending(self, terms);n });n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.showTrending = function (self, terms) {n // params checkn if (!Array.isArray(terms) || terms.length < 3) {n return;n } // DOM checknnn if (!self.trending || !self.termSpans || !self.termSpans[0]) {n return;n }nn var trendingLabel = ”;n trendingLabel += ‘”‘ + terms[0].text + ‘”‘ + ‘, ‘;n trendingLabel += ‘”‘ + terms[1].text + ‘”‘ + ‘ ‘;n trendingLabel += self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.trending_or’) + ‘ ‘;n trendingLabel += ‘”‘ + terms[2].text + ‘”‘;n self.termSpans[0].innerText = trendingLabel;n self.trending.classList.remove(“hide”);n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.hideTrending = function (self) {n if (!self.trending) {n return;n }nn self.trending.classList.add(“hide”);n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.showRetryLink = function (self) {n if (self.retryLink) {n self.retryLink.innerText = self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.recognition_retry’);n self.retryLink.classList.remove(“hide”);n }n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.hideRetryLink = function (self) {n if (self.retryLink) {n self.retryLink.classList.add(“hide”);n }n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.startRecognition = function (self) {n self.hidePermissionGuide(self);n self.getTrending(self);n self.startAudio.play();nn if (self.speechText) {n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.recognition_start’);n win.setTimeout(function () {n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t(‘search.voice.recognition_listening’);n }, 2000);n }nn if (self.speechPanel) {n self.speechPanel.classList.remove(“s2tb-h”);n self.speechPanel.classList.add(“s2tb”);n }nn self.hideRetryLink(self);n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.closePanel = function (self) {n self.closeAudio.play();n win.setTimeout(function () {n if (self.speechPanel) {n self.speechPanel.classList.remove(“s2tb”);n self.speechPanel.classList.add(“s2tb-h”);n }nn self.hideTrending(self);n self.hideRetryLink(self); // clean up esc listenernn doc.removeEventListener(‘keydown’, self.onEscKeyDown);n }, 100);n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.handlePunctuation = function (self) {n if (self.speechResult.length > 0) {n var lastChar = self.speechResult.charAt(self.speechResult.length – 1);nn if (lastChar === ‘.’ || lastChar === ‘?’ || lastChar === ‘。’ || lastChar === ‘?’) {n self.speechResult = self.speechResult.slice(0, -1);n }n }n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.sendBeacon = function (actn, slk) {n var ULT = win.YAHOO.ULT || {},n SB = win.YAHOO.SB || {};nn if (ULT.beacon_click) {n var trackParams = {n _S: SB.config.i13n.spaceid,n _I: SB.config.i13n.pvid,n actn: actn,n sec: ‘search’,n slk: slkn };n win.YAHOO.ULT.beacon_click(trackParams);n }n };nn VoiceSearch.prototype.ajaxReq = function (url, callback) {n var DONE_STATE = XMLHttpRequest.DONE || 4; // for IE-compatibilitynn var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();n var responseRaw;n var response; // CORS request only for IE8/IE9nn if (doc.documentMode && doc.documentMode < 10) {n var xdr = new win.XDomainRequest();nn xdr.onload = function () {n try {n response = JSON.parse(responseRaw);n callback(response);n } catch (err) {n return;n }n };nn xhr.open(‘GET’, url);n xhr.send();n return;n } // CORS request for browers newer than IE9nnn xhr.onreadystatechange = function () {n if (xhr.readyState !== DONE_STATE) {n return;n } // handle ajax responsennn switch (xhr.status) {n case 200:n responseRaw = xhr.responseText;nn try {n response = JSON.parse(responseRaw);n callback(response);n } catch (err) {n return;n }nn break;nn default:n // non-200 status code: retry or assume failuren callback(response);n break;n }n };nn xhr.open(‘GET’, url, true);n /* aync request */nn xhr.timeout = 10000;n xhr.send();n };nn if (!win.YAHOO) {n win.YAHOO = {};n }nn if (!win.YAHOO.Util) {n win.YAHOO.Util = {};n }nn win.YAHOO.Util.VoiceSearch = VoiceSearch;n})(window, document);nn//# sourceURL=webpack://@vzmi/voicejs/./src/index.js?”)},”./src/lib/I18n.js”:
/*!*************************!*
!*** ./src/lib/I18n.js ***!
*************************/function(module,__unused_webpack_exports,__webpack_require__){eval(“module.exports = function () {n var LANG_LIST = __webpack_require__(/*! ./lang_list.json */ “./src/lib/lang_list.json”);nn var DEFAULT_LANG = ‘default’;nn var isValidLang = function isValidLang(lang) {n return LANG_LIST.indexOf(lang) !== -1;n }; // convert language strings to key-value mapnnn var buildStrMap = function buildStrMap(langStrings) {n return langStrings.reduce(function (strMap, item) {n strMap[item.id] = item.defaultMessage;n return strMap;n }, {});n };nn var I18n = function I18n(options) {n // initializen this.lang = isValidLang(options && options.lang) ? options.lang : DEFAULT_LANG;n }; // static membersnnn I18n.langMap = {};n I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG] = buildStrMap(__webpack_require__(/*! ../lang/strings.json */ “./src/lang/strings.json”));nn I18n.setLangMap = function (lang, strings) {n if (lang && strings) {n I18n.langMap[lang] = buildStrMap(strings);n }n }; // instance membersnnn I18n.prototype = {n t: function t(id) {n switch (true) {n // look up target languagen case Boolean(I18n.langMap && I18n.langMap[this.lang] && I18n.langMap[this.lang][id]):n return I18n.langMap[this.lang][id];n // fallback to default stringsnn case Boolean(I18n.langMap && I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG] && I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG][id]):n return I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG][id];nn default:n return ”;n }n }n };n return I18n;n}();nn//# sourceURL=webpack://@vzmi/voicejs/./src/lib/I18n.js?”)},”./node_modules/css-loader/dist/cjs.js!./node_modules/postcss-loader/dist/cjs.js!./src/index.css”:
/*!*******************************************************************************************************!*
!*** ./node_modules/css-loader/dist/cjs.js!./node_modules/postcss-loader/dist/cjs.js!./src/index.css ***!
*******************************************************************************************************/function(module,__webpack_exports__,__webpack_require__){eval(‘__webpack_require__.r(__webpack_exports__);n/* harmony import */ var _node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0__ = __webpack_require__(/*! ../node_modules/css-loader/dist/runtime/api.js */ “./node_modules/css-loader/dist/runtime/api.js”);n/* harmony import */ var _node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0___default = /*#__PURE__*/__webpack_require__.n(_node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0__);n// Importsnnvar ___CSS_LOADER_EXPORT___ = _node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0___default()(function(i){return i[1]});n// Modulen___CSS_LOADER_EXPORT___.push([module.id, “/* Sprites */\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone .sprite,\n#spchp .close-button,\n#spch .close-button,\n#spch .spchc .microphone,\n#spch .spchc .speaking .microphone {\n background-image: url(https://s.yimg.com/pv/static/img/voiceSearch1x-1620383531565.min.png);\n background-repeat: no-repeat;\n background-size: initial;\n color: transparent;\n}\n/* Retina displays */\n@media\n only screen and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),\n only screen and (min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),\n only screen and (min-resolution: 192dpi),\n only screen and (min-resolution: 2dppx) {\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone .sprite,\n#spchp .close-button,\n#spch .close-button,\n#spch .spchc .microphone,\n#spch .spchc .speaking .microphone {\n background-size: 41px 330px;\n background-image: url(https://s.yimg.com/pv/static/img/voiceSearch2x-1620383531565.min.png)\n}\n }\n\n/* permission guide */\n#spchp.permission-guide {\n height: 100%;\n width: 100%;\n padding: 0;\n opacity: 0.9;\n background-color: #fff;\n left: 0;\n overflow: hidden;\n position: fixed;\n text-align: left;\n top: 0;\n z-index: 10000;\n transition: visibility 0s linear 0.218s, background-color 0.218s;\n}\n#spchp.permission-guide .close-button {\n background-position: 0 0;\n width: 24px;\n height: 24px;\n border: none;\n cursor: pointer;\n right: 0;\n margin: 20px;\n padding: 0;\n position: absolute;\n top: 0;\n z-index: 10;\n opacity: 0.8;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .close-button:hover {\n opacity: 1;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide {\n margin: 191px 0 0 507px;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone {\n height: 68px;\n width: 52px;\n border-right: 1px solid #232a31;\n float: left;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone .sprite {\n background-position: 0 -105px;\n width: 28px;\n height: 28px;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .guide-text {\n height: 68px;\n margin-left: 24px;\n float: left;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .guide-text .title {\n color: #232a31;\n font-size: 32px;\n font-family: HelveticaNeue-Bold;\n line-height: 28px;\n margin-bottom: 16px;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .guide-text .text {\n color: #232a31;\n font-size: 16px;\n line-height: 28px;\n }\n#spchp.permission-guide.hide {\n display: none;\n }\n\n/* speech panel */\n#spch.spch {\n background: #fff;\n height: 100%;\n left: 0;\n opacity: 0;\n overflow: hidden;\n position: fixed;\n text-align: left;\n top: 0;\n visibility: hidden;\n width: 100%;\n z-index: 10000;\n transition: visibility 0s linear 0.218s, background-color 0.218s;\n}\n#spch.spch .close-button {\n background-position: 0 0;\n width: 24px;\n height: 24px;\n border: none;\n cursor: pointer;\n right: 0;\n margin: 20px;\n padding: 0;\n position: absolute;\n top: 0;\n z-index: 10;\n opacity: 0.8;\n }\n#spch.spch .close-button:hover {\n opacity: 1;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc {\n display: block;\n height: 97px;\n pointer-events: none;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container {\n width: 100%;\n height: 100%;\n opacity: 0.1;\n pointer-events: none;\n transition: opacity 0.318s ease-in;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .spch-control {\n display: inline-block;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container {\n float: left;\n height: 91px;\n overflow: hidden;\n margin: 3px 0;\n pointer-events: none;\n width: calc(50% – 48.5px);\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container p {\n display: table-cell;\n vertical-align: middle;\n width: 550px;\n height: 97px;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container .spcht {\n font-weight: normal;\n color: #6e7780;\n line-height: normal;\n opacity: 0;\n pointer-events: none;\n text-align: left;\n -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;\n transition: opacity 0.1s ease-in, margin-left 0.5s ease-in, top 0s linear 0.218s;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container .spcht.hide {\n display: none;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container #spcht-retry {\n color: #0f69ff;\n cursor: pointer;\n pointer-events: auto;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container {\n pointer-events: none;\n position: relative;\n transition: transform 0.218s, opacity 0.218s ease-in;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container .button {\n background-color: #fff;\n border: 1px solid #eee;\n border-radius: 100%;\n bottom: 0;\n box-shadow: 0 2px 5px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.1);\n cursor: pointer;\n display: inline-block;\n left: 0;\n opacity: 0;\n pointer-events: none;\n position: absolute;\n right: 0;\n top: 0;\n transition: background-color 0.218s, border 0.218s, box-shadow 0.218s;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container .button .microphone {\n background-position: 0 -24px;\n width: 41px;\n height: 41px;\n left: 27px;\n pointer-events: none;\n position: absolute;\n top: 27px;\n transform: scale(1);\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.listening .ripple {\n position: absolute;\n width: 136px;\n height: 136px;\n z-index: -1;\n left: 50%;\n top: 50%;\n opacity: 0;\n margin: -70px 0 0 -70px;\n border-radius: 100px;\n -webkit-animation: ripple 3.3s infinite;\n animation: ripple 3.3s infinite;\n background-color: #fff !important;\n border: 2px solid #e0e4e9;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.listening .ripple:nth-child(2) {\n -webkit-animation-delay: 1.1s;\n animation-delay: 1.1s;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.listening .ripple:nth-child(3) {\n -webkit-animation-delay: 2.2s;\n animation-delay: 2.2s;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .button {\n background-color: #0f69ff;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .button .microphone {\n background-position: 0 -65px;\n width: 40px;\n height: 40px;\n pointer-events: none;\n position: absolute;\n transform: scale(1);\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .ripple {\n background-size: 114px;\n position: absolute;\n width: 114px;\n height: 114px;\n z-index: -1;\n left: 50%;\n top: 50%;\n margin: -57px 0 0 -57px;\n -webkit-animation: speakingRipple1 2s infinite;\n animation: speakingRipple1 2s infinite;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .ripple:nth-child(2) {\n background-size: 123px;\n width: 123px;\n height: 123px;\n margin: -62px 0 0 -62px;\n -webkit-animation: speakingRipple2 2s infinite;\n animation: speakingRipple2 2s infinite;\n }\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .ripple:nth-child(3) {\n background-size: 136px;\n width: 136px;\n height: 136px;\n margin: -68px 0 0 -68px;\n -webkit-animation: speakingRipple3 2s infinite;\n animation: speakingRipple3 2s infinite;\n }\n#spch.spch .spcho {\n background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgb(255, 255, 255) 50%, rgba(255, 255, 255, 0) 99%);\n display: block;\n min-width: 100%;\n text-align: center;\n top: 145px;\n padding-bottom: 71px;\n pointer-events: auto;\n }\n#spch.spch .spcho #spch-trending {\n -webkit-animation: fadeIn 1s forwards;\n animation: fadeIn 1s forwards;\n opacity: 0;\n }\n#spch.spch .spcho #spch-trending .trending {\n color: 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Could China’s Yuan replace the U.S. dollar as the world’s dominant currency? Here’s how the Asian nation’s trade supremacy is quickly boosting its reserve status

China’s economy has been immensely successful by most measures. Its gross domestic product (GDP) of $17.7 trillion is second only to the United States. It’s also the third-largest trading nation in the world — behind only the U.S. and E.U.

However, China’s currency — the renminbi — only accounts for 3% of global trade. Compare that to the 87% market share of the U.S. dollar. Despite its economic and political power, the country doesn’t dominate the global flow of fiat currency. Now, it’s looking to change that.

Here is China’s multitrillion, multidecade plan to replace the U.S. dollar as the world’s reserve currency.

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How do currencies achieve reserve status?

Achieving reserve currency status isn’t a formal process. Instead, it’s like winning a popularity contest.

The most popular currency for global trade and cross-border commerce emerges as the de facto reserve currency. The “popularity” of a currency is simply based on the perception of security and resilience of the issuing country. This is the asset or currency that most central banks across the world prefer to hold in reserve, which is why the dominant asset earns the label of “reserve currency.”

Since 1450, there have been six major reserve currency periods. Portugal dominated the global reserves until 1530 when Spain became stronger. Currencies issued by the Netherlands and France dominated world trade for much of the 17th and 18th centuries. But the emergence of the British empire made the Pound Sterling the reserve currency until the end of the First World War.

The U.S. dollar displaced the pound just as America gained economic superiority over Britain. More than 75% of global transactions have been completed in U.S. dollars since 2008. The dollar also accounts for more than 60% of foreign debt issuance and 59% of global central bank reserves.

Although the dollar’s grip on all these markets and instruments has been gradually declining in recent years, no other currency comes close to these levels. The Chinese renminbi certainly isn’t a viable alternative, but geopolitical and macroeconomic trends support its rise to dominance.

China’s plan

This year, Chinese leaders made it clear that they wanted to boost the renminbi’s profile as a reserve currency. China’s economy and trade flows are large enough to support such a move. However, the country now needs to convince foreign central bankers to start holding the Chinese Yuan (the principal unit of the renminbi) in reserve.

In July, The People’s Bank of China announced a collaboration with five nations and the Bank for International Settlements to achieve this. China, along with Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Chile would each contribute 15 billion yuan, about $2.2 billion, to the Renminbi Liquidity Arrangement.

Meanwhile, the Chinese Yuan has already become a de facto reserve currency in Russia. Russian leadership turned to China after facing sanctions from the West due to its invasion of Ukraine earlier this year. Now, 17% of Russia’s foreign reserves are denominated in yuan. The yuan is also the third most demanded currency on The Moscow Exchange.

As these partnerships become stronger, the yuan’s status as a reserve currency could be further entrenched.

The global impact

Economists including Barry Eichengreen of the University of California Berkeley and Camille Macaire of France’s central bank published a paper analyzing the yuan’s potential as a reserve currency. The researchers argue that replacing the dollar isn’t going to be easy or quick. However, they found evidence that yuan reserves were steadily increasing in countries that had tighter trade relations with China.

This growing influence could make the yuan an alternative to the U.S. dollar in a “multipolar” world. In other words, China might chip away at the dollar’s influence over time. The study’s authors said the renminbi’s current position was similar to the U.S. dollar in the 1950s. Based on that comment, it could be just a few decades before the yuan gains parity.

If the forecasts are correct, long-term investors should consider some exposure to yuan-denominated assets and Chinese stocks with significant yuan earnings.

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This article provides information only and should not be construed as advice. It is provided without warranty of any kind.

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The AV Club

Olivia Wilde continues to have only nice things to say about Florence Pugh despite Venice tardiness

It is obvious by now that Florence Pugh wants as little to do with Don’t Worry Darling as humanly possible. For months, there have been rumors about her displeasure with her experience in the film. When she was conspicuously silent on social media about promoting the film, TikTok explained her silence by claiming that she took issue with director Olivia Wilde’s behavior on set—namely, her affair with Harry Styles (a relationship that seems, by all appearances, to be going strong, so good for the

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